Physics Lecture Demonstrations

Demonstrations suggested for the text
University Physics, by
Ronald Lane Reese

Second Semester
Chapters 16-27

Revised Sat Aug 31 19:07:41 2002

Chapter16--Electric Charges, Electrical Forces, and the Electric Field

EM-a1a Frictional Electricity An electroscope is charged using charged rods.
EM-a2a Charged Rods on Pivots A charged rod on a pivot is used to show attraction and repulsion by another charged rod.
EM-a5b Van de Graaff Generator Describe the operation of the Van de Graaff and show sparks from the ball to a nearby grounded conductor.
EM-a4a Electroscope Charged by Induction Charge an electroscope by induction.
EM-a4b Charged Rods and Aluminum Can A charged rod can be used to pull a soda can by electrostatic induction
EM-a5a Wimshurst Machine Generate sparks with a Wimhurst Machine, and explain its workings.
EM-b1b Hair on End Charge yourself with a Van de Graaff generator
EM-b1c Styrofoam Peanut Blowout Styrofoam peanuts in a box on top of the Van de Graaff fly out.
EM-b1e Tart Pan Blowoff Tart pans stacked on top of the Van de Graaff fly off.
EM-b1d Electric Field Visualizer Tiny fibers in a clear oil align in the direction of strong applied electric fields.
EM-b2a Faraday Bucket Show that charge resides on the outside of a hollow conductor.
EM-b2f Gauss with Electric Field Visualizer Tiny fibers in a clear oil that align in the direction of strong applied electric fields remain randomly oriented inside a charged ring.
EM-b2b Radio in a Cage Surround a radio by a Faraday cage and the signal goes away
EM-b1a Oscilloscope Show that an electron beam passing between charged, parallel plates is deflected using an oscilloscope.

Chapter17--Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential

EM-a5c Van de Graaff Generator--Sound The engine strains more and more as the charge on the dome increases.
EM-b3a Surface charge density - balls Separate two pairs of balls of different radius but same separation are attached to and charged simultaneously with the Wimhurst.
EM-b3c Charged Ovoid Use a proof plane and an electroscope to compare charge densities at different points on an egg-shaped conductor.
EM-b3g Lightning Rod Electrical arcing between two large metal spheres abruptly ceases when the lightning rod is touched to one.
EM-b3f Electric Wind with Van de Graaff A point attached to the Van de Graaff blows a hanging peice of cardboard.
EM-b3e Van de Graaff Pinwheel A pinwheel rotates on top of a van de Graaff generator.
EM-e6a Piezoelectric Demonstrator Generate sparks by compressing a piezoelectric crystal.

Chapter18--Circuit Elements, Independent Voltage Sources, and Capacitors

EM-c1a Parallel Plate Capacitor Vary the spacing of a parallel plate capacitor attached to an electroscope.
EM-c1b Capacitance as a Function of Area The rotary plate capacitor is attached to the electroscope.
EM-f3b Lighting bulb with Capacitor A large (1 Farad) capacitor is charged with a battery then discharged through a light bulb.
EM-c3e Capacitors in Series and Parallel Discharge a 0.1F capacitor through a light bulb, and compare with that for three in series and three in parallel
EM-c3a Explosive Capacitor Discharge Discharge a 10kV, 1uF capacitor through a thin wire or thick screwdriver
EM-c3b Bulb and 1 Farad Capacitor A large (1 Farad) capacitor is charged with a battery then discharged through a light bulb.
EM-c2a Parallel Plate Capacitor with Dielectric Insert and remove a dielectric sheet from a charged parallel plate capacitor attached to an electroscope.
EM-c2c Force on a dielectric Mineral oil climbs in the gap between parallel plates
EM-c2b Dissectable Capacitor This curious capacitor is charged, disassembled, passed around, assembled, and discharged with a spark.

Chapter19--Electric Current, Resistance, and dc Circuit analysis

EM-b1f Ball Charge Transfer A conductive ball bounces between electrically charged horizontal plates
EM-d1a Wire Resistivity Place 6V across a set of wires of different diameters and measure the currents.
EM-d2a Change of Resistance with Temperature A coil in series with a lamp is immersed in liquid nitrogen making the lamp glow brighter.
EM-d2c Conduction in Glass Heat a glass rod with a flame until its resistance is low enough to sustain conduction.
EM-d4a Jacob's Ladder An arc rises between rabbit ear electrodes attached to a high voltage source.
EM-f1e Hot Dog Cooker Spike a hot dog with two nails and cook it.
EM-f1a Resistor I-V characteristics Measure and graph the I-V characteristics for a resistor. The value of the resistance may be varied.
EM-f1b Resistance of a Wire Measure the potential drop along a wire
EM-f2a Series Circuit with Bulbs Show a series circuit of light bulbs
EM-f2b Parallel Circuit with Bulbs Show a parallel circuit of light bulbs
EM-f2c Series Parallel Combination Two bulbs in series with a power supply, and a third bulb in parallel with one of others.
EM-c3c Bulb, 1 Farad Capacitor, and DVM Monitor the discharge of a 1 Farad capacitor through a light bulb with a digital voltmeter.
EM-c3d Bulb, 1 Farad Capacitor, and oscilloscope Oscilloscope display of a 1 Farad capacitor discharging through a light bulb.

Chapter20--Magnetic Forces and the Magnetic Field

EM-g1a Lodestone Show that the lodestone attracts small nails and paperclips.
EM-h1c Dip Needle A dip needle is used to show the inclination of the earth's field.
EM-h1d Magnet and Iron Filings -- 2D A small magnet on top of the magnetic domain model apparatus
EM-h1e Magnet and Iron Filings -- 3D A bar magnet surrounded in 3D by a clear acrylic tank filled with a liquid containing iron filings.
EM-h2a Magnets on Pivots One magnet is placed on a pivot. The other is used to attract or repel the first
EM-h2b Ring Magnets on a Pole Two or more ring magnets are placed on a vertical pole
EM-h3a e/m tube Deflect the beam in an e/m tube with magnets
EM-h3b Oscilloscope and magnet Deflect the beam in an oscilloscope with magnets
EM-h1a Oersted Experiment Show that current in a wire deflects a compass needle.
EM-h4a Force Between Two Current Carrying Conductors Show on the overhead projector that long parallel wires with currents in the same (opposite) directions attract (repel).
EM-h4c AC and DC Lamps A magnet is brought near two carbon filament bulbs, one DC powered and one AC powered.
EM-h4b Force on Current-carrying wire A loop of wire swings to the side of a U-magnet's gap when connected to a current-limited power supply.
EM-h5a Galvanometer A magnet exerts a torque on a current-carrying coil.
EM-k4c Direct Current Motor Show and explain a DC motor running on batteries.
EM-h1k B-Field due to long straight wire Iron filings are sprinkled on a plexiglas plate through which a long vertical current-carrying wire passes.
EM-h1m B-Field due to single coil. Iron filings are sprinkled on a plexiglas plate through which a single loop of current-carrying wire is mounted
EM-h1n B-Field due to solenoid Iron filings are sprinkled on a plexiglas plate through which a current-carrying solenoid is mounted.
EM-g2c Barkhausen effect A soft iron core is inserted into a coil inside a magnetic field and connected to an audio amplifier and speaker.
EM-g2a Magnetic Domain Model An array of small compasses shows domain structures
EM-g2b Hard vs. Soft magnetic materials A circular magnetic yoke connecting two wire coils is closed with soft and hard materials
EM-g3b Paramagnetic Aluminum A small aluminum rod suspended by a thread in the gap of a powerful magnet aligns with the field.
EM-g3c Diamagnetic Glass A small glass rod suspended by a thread in the gap of a powerful magnet orients transverse to the magnetic field.
EM-g3a Paramagnetic Liquid Oxygen Liquid oxygen condensing from air drips into the gap of a strong magnet

Chapter21--Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction

EM-k1a Induction Coil and Magnet A magnet is moved in and out of a coil connected to a galvanometer
EM-k1b Induction with Coils and Battery Attach one coil to a galvanometer, another to a battery and tap switch. Use a core to increase coupling
EM-k2a Eddy Current Pendulum A copper sheet, a comb, a ring, and a broken ring are swung through a large electromagnet.
EM-k2b Magnets and Eddy Tubes Drop magnet and a non-magnetic dummy down an aluminum tube.
EM-k2c Magnet and Copper Tube Drop magnet down a short length of straight copper tubing and watch it fall.
EM-k2d Jumping Rings A solid conducting ring sitting on a vertical solenoid jumps and a split ring doesn't
EM-k4a AC Generator Rotating a wire loop in a magnetic field generates an AC current in the loop.
EM-k4b DC Generator Generate a DC current by rotating a loop with a split-ring connection in a magnetic field.
EM-k4d Hand-held DC Generator Use the handheld generator to illuminate a bulb.
EM-j2a Series RL circuit: L/R charge/discharge "Charging" and "Discharging" of inductor shown with square wave and oscilloscope
EM-j2b Series RL circuit: L/R phase shifts Show phase shifts in a series RL circuit using the oscilloscope.
EM-j2c Variable Inductor A lamp in series or parallel with a variable inductor.
EM-j1b Back EMF with light bulb Open the switch of a large coil with a light bulb in parallel
EM-j1a Inductance Spark A bright spark is produced when the switch of a large electromagnet is opened
EM-k3a Transformer Demonstrate step-up and step-down transformers.
EM-L2c non-driven LRC circuit oscillations Show the oscillations (ringing) when a charged capacitor is connected in series to an inductor and small resistor.

Chapter22--Sinusoidal ac Circuit Analysis

EM-L2a 60 Hz LRC circuit Shows the potential difference across the Capacitor and Inductor at resonance.
EM-L2b LRC circuit with function generator Show the voltage-to-current phase shift and amplitude peaking at resonance in a driven LRC circuit.

Chapter23--Geometric Optics

O-a1c Blackboard Optics -- Plane Mirror Use multiple-beam generator to show image formation with a plane mirror.
O-a1g Diffuse vs Specular Reflection Reflect light first from a shiny surface, then from a rough surface.
O-a1d Corner Reflector Look into a corner reflector
O-a4a The Magic Mending Solution A broken pyrex beaker is "magically" mended with a beaker of Wesson Oil.
O-a4d Refraction with Blackboard Optics A single beam of light shines on a large acrylic prism
O-a4j Stick in Water A stick appears bent when inserted into the water at an angle.
O-a4p Total Internal Reflection/Fiber Optics Shows the path of a laser beam inside an acrylic rod.
O-a4q Optical Fibers Show (with a laser pointer) and tell with optical fibers
EM-n3b Project the Spectrum Project white light through a high-dispersion prism
O-a2c Blackboard optics -- curved mirrors Show image formation (size, location, orientation) from concave and convex mirrors on the blackboard.
O-a2d Optic Mirage Two concave mirrors face each other. The top mirror has a hole allowing light to enter and escape. An image of the objects resting on the bottom of one appears at the center hole of the top mirror.
O-a2e Large Concave/Convex Mirrors Shake hands with yourself using the large concave mirror; view images in the large convex mirror.
O-a6a Blackboard Optics -- Thin Lens Ray trace images using convex and concave lens and a parallel ray box.
O-a6q Pincushion/Barrel Distortion Show pincushion and barrel distortion with a thick lens and grid object.
O-j1d Molded Eye Model Show a molded model of the eye.
O-j1c Working Eye Model A model demonstrates the focal capabilities of the normal, nearsighted, and farsighted eye.
O-a1f Parity Reversal in a Mirror Right-handed and left-handed coordinate axes illustrate parity reversal in a mirror.

Chapter24--Physical Optics

O-d1a Double Slit and Laser Show the light interference pattern of two slits, using different widths and spacings
O-d1b Microwave Double Slit Interference Placing the Aluminum Sheet with Double Slit in front of the Microwave Generator produces a double slit interference pattern which can be detected by the Microwave detector and heard through the auditorium.
O-c1a Single Slit Diffraction Pattern Shine a laser beam through single slits of various widths.
O-c1b Microwave Diffraction The diffraction pattern of a single slit can be heard with the audio-coupled detector
O-c2a Arago's (or Poisson's) Spot Shine a laser beam at a small ball and look at the diffraction pattern
O-d2b Rowland Ruling Engine The Rowland Ruling Engine, on the second floor of the Bloomberg Center.
O-d2a Number of Slits Shine a laser beam through various numbers of slits with the same spacing
O-d3a Newton's Rings Reflect white light off Newton's Rings onto a screen.
O-d3b Soap Film Interference View the interference fringes of a soap film in a 2-litre bottle.
EM-n1b Microwave Generation and Detection Show the generation and detection of microwaves including polarization
O-h1a Polaroids on the Overhead Show polarization with two sheets of polaroid on the overhead
O-h1b Microwave Polarizing Filter Insert a grid of parallel wires (= cookie cooling rack) in a microwave beam and rotate the grid.
O-h2b Reflection off Water Reflected light is shown to be polarized.
O-h3p Calcite Crystals Use a polaroid filter to show the polarization of ordinary and extraordinary rays
O-h3q Demonstrating Strain with Crossed Polaroids A set of lucite shapes are stressed between crossed polaroids
O-h5a Polarization in the Sunset Demo Rotate a Polaroid at the side of the tank in the sunset demo.
O-f4a Sunset A beam of light shines through a tank of slightly milky water onto the wall.
O-h3a Karo Syrup Insert a beaker of liquid sugar between crossed polaroids.
O-a1b Speed of light in fiber optic cable Compare the time for a light pulse to travel through two different lengths of fiber optic cable.

Chapter25--The Special Theory of Relativity

O-d4a Michaelson Interferometer Show the Michaelson Interferometer and how it works.

Chapter26--An Aperitif: Modern Physics

MO-d3a Diffusion Cloud Chamber A diffusion cloud chamber shows the tracks from cosmic rays and from alpha, beta, gamma, and X-ray sources.
O-b4a Blackbody Radiation Project the spectrum of an incandescent bulb as a function of temperature.
MO-a1a Photoelectric Effect in Zinc A charged electroscope attached to a zinc plate discharges when UV light illuminates the zinc.
MO-a5d Vibrating Circular Wire A circular wire driven by a function generator produces standing waves at resonant frequencies.
MO-b1a Diffraction Grating and Atomic Spectra Have students look through a diffraction grating at a spectrum tube.
MO-a6a Electron Diffraction Electrons passing through a carbon target produce a circular diffraction pattern.

Chapter27--An Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

Physics Lecture Demonstrations at the Department of Physics and Astronomy
The Johns Hopkins University